In the years 2000–2011, multiple field surveys were conducted by Paul Schröttner (Vienna) on a hill in Großweikersdorf (near Tulln, Lower Austria). He was able to collect a wide range of Palaeolithic stone tools, which he officially announced to the competent authority in 2011. First surveys showed clearly that this site is independent from the previously known and adjacent Palaeolithic sites of Großweikersdorf-Ziegelei and Ruppersthal-Flur Mordthal and represents a completely new discovery.
330 finds are currently subject to investigation, including a fossilized bone, a stone axe, a Bronze Age and two Neolithic sickle inserts, two gun flints and a flake of northern flint (indicating relatively recent activity). Of particular relevance are three leaf points as well as two other bifacially retouched tools possibly representing fragments of leaf points. This tool type indicates a Late Middle Palaeolithic (Szeletian) context.
Equally important in this collection is evidence of the Levallois technique given by almost 20 Levallois cores in different stages of reduction and dimensions as well as individual Levallois flakes.
Scrapers, bifacial core tools and chopping tools can also be assigned to a Middle Palaeolithic complex.
Another significant proportion of the finds can be chronologically classified as early Upper Palaeolithic. Represented types like carinated and nosed scrapers as well as individual carinated burins point to the Aurignacian.
In summary, the collection indicates repeated use of the plateau. The leaf points find their best parallels in the Szeletian, a regional group of the late Middle Palaeolithic of Central Europe. Further sites in Austria with leaf point findings are rare; generally, only single finds, without accompanying inventories, old finds and/or finds with uncertain stratigraphical context are documented. Großweikersdorf-Kogel closes a gap between the Moravian and south Bavarian complexes.
So far, the presence of Levallois technique has not been documented in secure Szeletian complexes. We must therefore provisionally suggest another, older phase of the Middle Palaeolithic. A third, chronologically younger use of the site took place in the Aurignacian, which is evidenced by a high proportion (about 40 pieces) of nosed and carinated scrapers.
The discovery of Großweikersdorf provides first evidence for a Middle Palaeolithic open-air site in the region. Surprising is the strong component of Levallois cores, which is unparalleled to this date. Leaf points are well known from Lower Austria, but they all derive from unstratified contexts without accompanying finds. The range of lithic types from Großweikersdorf even suggests a repeatedly occupied campsite.
- Ch. Neugebauer-Maresch – R. Thomas, Neue Aspekte zum späten Mittelpaläolithikum in Niederösterreich – der Oberflächenfundplatz Großweikersdorf-Kogel (report abstract). Hugo Obermaier-Gesellschaft, 55. Jahrestagung in Wien, 2013. Conference proceedings, 37.
- Ch. Neugebauer-Maresch – R. Thomas, KG Großweikersdorf, Fundberichte aus Österreich 50/2011, 2012, 317–320.