Kammern-Grubgraben


View on the site Kammern-Grubgraben (© OREA)
Excavation 1993 by F. Brandtner and B. Klíma (© G. Trnka)

Grubgraben near Kammern (Hadersdorf-Kammern, Lower Austria) was the first Palaeolithic open-air site discovered in Austria (1870). Nestled between the north-eastern steep drop of the Heiligenstein and the western slope of the Gaißberg, it extends over an elevated terrain, which is open to the south. In the course of its long history of research, many renowned archaeologists have studied this site. The first excavations were conducted by Josef Bayer in 1922. Friedrich Brandtner initiated a systematic study from 1985 to 1987, inviting a team under Anta Montet-White (University of Kansas) to excavate. 1989/90 he carried out further field investigations together with Bohuslav Klíma.

Five archaeological horizons were identified, but only layers 2 and 3, where the structures of a dwelling were documented, were extensively excavated. C14 dates range between 18,000 and 19,000 years BP. The site is characterised by a rich bone industry, including needles with small eyes, ivory points, spatulas, round pendants and denticulated bone artefacts. Particularly noteworthy is a bâtonpercé, the fragment of a spear thrower and a flute made from the tibia of a reindeer. 

Inventoryproject

Current Fieldwork

Publications

Publikationen

 

  • Ch. Neugebauer-Maresch, Th. Einwögerer, J. Richter, A. Maier, S. T. Hussain, Kammern-Grubgraben. Neue Erkenntnisse zu den Grabungen 1985–1994, Archaeologia Austriaca 100, Wien 2016, 225–254.
  • P. Haeserts, F. Damblon, The Late Palaeolithic Site of Kammern-Grubgraben (Lower Austria). Additional Data on Loess Stratigraphy and Palaeoenvironment, Archaeologia Austriaca 100, Wien 2016, 255–269.
  • P. Haeserts, F. Damblon, C. Neugebauer-Maresch, Th. Einwögerer, Radiocarbon Chronology of the Late Palaeolithic Loess Site of Kammern-Grubgraben (Lower Austria), Archaeologia Austriaca 100, Wien 2016, 271–277.
  • Ch. Neugebauer-Maresch, M. Bachner †, J. Tuzar, Kammern-Grubgraben, Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen aus dem Niederösterreichischen Landesmuseum 19, 2008, 119–128.
  • Th. Einwögerer, B. Käfer, Eine jungpaläolithische Knochenflöte aus der Station Grubgraben bei Kammern, Niederösterreich. Mit einem Beitrag von Florian A. Fladerer, Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 28, Heft 1, 1998, 21–30.
  • F. Brandtner, Zur geostratigraphischen und kulturellen Zuordnung der Paläolithstation Grubgraben bei Kammern, NÖ. In: J. Svoboda (ed.), Paleolithic in the Middle Danube Region. Festschrift für B. Klíma, Dolní Vestonice Studies 4, Brno 1996, 121–146.
  • A. Montet-White (ed.), The Epigravettian Site of Grubgraben, Lower Austria: The 1986 and 1987 Excavations, ERAUL – Etudes et recherches archéologiques de l’Université de Liège 40, Liège 1990.
  • F. Brandtner, Stand der Paläolithforschung in Niederösterreich. Vortrag gehalten auf der Niederösterreich-Tagung der Gesellschaft für Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Asparn/Zaya, Mannus 56, Bonn – Wien 1990, 43–58.
  • F. Brandtner, Die Paläolithstation „Grubgraben“ bei Kammern. Vorläufige Ergebnisse neuerer Grabungen, Fundberichte aus Österreich 1989, 17–26.