FROM SEDENTISM TO PROTOURBAN SOCIETIES IN WESTERN ANATOLIA
Prehistoric archaeological research in western Anatolia has been poorly pursued since the beginning of archaeological excavations in this area more than one hundred years ago. Especially the central Aegean coast represents a terra incognita in most prehistoric periods of humankind. Consequently, basic research in prehistory remains crucial for enlarging our knowledge of central scientific questions, such as the transfer of early complex technologies (e.g. development of metallurgy), the dating of the initial stages of the first permanent settlements and their development into proto-urban complex societies.
The ERC project focused mainly on two distinctive chronological and cultural horizons – the period of the first permanent settlements (sedentism), the Neolithic, and the development of proto-urban centres from Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period. Combining both huge research topics in one project enables a broad spectrum of cultural modeling, based upon multidisciplinary diachronic and comparative studies concerning changing societies in a changing environment from the 7th to 3rd millennium BC.
New excavations at Çukuriçi Höyük, archaeological and environmental surveys in Kaykos and Kaystros valleys (micro-regions of Pergamon and Ephesos) were the essential methods to produce modern documented data that were analyzed with a broad multidisciplinary and international team of scientists and students. Besides archaeology, those disciplines were geophysics, paleogeography, metallurgy, inorganic chemistry, petrography/mineralogy, geology, zoology and genetics, botany, anthracology, organic chemistry, physics and anthropology.To achieve an integrated picture and to concentrate the broad spectrum of studies the focus was set on the following three research topics:
- Archaeological Periods and Definitions of Cultures
- Societies in Changing Environments
- Communication, Exchange and Interregional Relationships
After the end of the project in 2016, several publications are planned to be published in a separated “Çukuriçi Höyük” series as part of the OREA publications.
- Dr. A. Galik (Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien, Institut für Anatomie)
- Mag. M. Mehofer (VIAS – Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science, Universität Wien)
- Prof. DI Dr. L. Puchinger (Technische Universität Wien, Institut für Verfahrenstechnik)
- Prof. Dr. F. Sauter (Technische Universität Wien, em. O. Prof. für Organische Chemie)
- Assoc. Prof. Dr. U. Thanheiser (VIAS – Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science, Universität Wien)
- Prof. Dr. G. Borg (Institut für Geowissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg)
- Prof. Dr. H. Bückner (Geographisches Institut, Universität zu Köln)
- Dr. Barbara Eichhorn (Archäobotanik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt)
- Dr. Fokke Gerritsen (Netherlands Institute Istanbul, Ausgrabung Barcin Höyük)
- Dr. N. Karul (University of Istanbul, Ausgrabung Aktopraklık)
- Prof. Dr. E. Pernicka (Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Mannheim und Universität Tübingen, Ausgrabung Troja)
- Prof. Dr. F. Pirson (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Istanbul, Ausgrabung Pergamon)
- Ass. Prof. Dr. U. Schoop (University Edinburgh, Ausgrabung Çamlıbel Tarlası)
- Dr. Th. Urban (Urban und Partner, Birkenwerder)
- Dr. B. Weninger (Radiokarbonlabor, Universität zu Köln)
- Ass. Prof. Dr. Th. Zimmerman (Bilkent University Ankara, verschiedene Ausgrabungen in Zentralanatolien)